Ukrainian “peace formula” forum in Malta: progress and outcomes

The third meeting on the Ukrainian “peace formula” in Malta, which took place on 28-29 October, focused on nuclear, food and energy security, the release of prisoners and deportees and the restoration of Ukraine’s territorial integrity.

The meeting in Malta was attended by over 65 countries, significantly more than the previous meeting in Saudi Arabia. The list of participating countries has yet to be disclosed, but it has been reported that Armenia took part in the forum for the first time.

China did not attend the meeting of national security and foreign policy advisers. A Ukrainian Foreign Ministry spokesperson said that China did not participate in the conference in Malta, despite Ukraine’s efforts to get Beijing to send a representative.

The meeting in Malta discussed five points of the 10-point formula proposed by Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskyy last year: nuclear security, food security, energy security, releasing prisoners and deportees, and territorial integrity of Ukraine, as reported by the Office of Ukrainian President.

The five points of the “peace formula”, which were discussed in Malta, had been previously developed by working groups involving diplomatic representatives from different countries. Ukrainian and other nations’ officials presented and commented on each point at the meeting.

The nuclear safety plan envisages the complete withdrawal of Russian personnel, weapons and equipment from Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhya NPP and the transfer of control over the plant to Ukraine, strengthening the role of the IAEA in monitoring compliance with the rules of operation of nuclear facilities and studying mechanisms of responsibility for failure to comply with the principle of nuclear safety.

The implementation of the energy security clause, as proposed by the working group, involves the development of an energy resilience model that would prevent energy security violations and make it possible to use energy as a lever of influence in future acts of aggression.

In the context of food security, the “formula for peace” proposes the establishment of international security guarantees for the uninterrupted supply of food, including strengthening the protection of Ukraine’s port and logistics infrastructure, ensuring the demining of sea routes in the Black Sea, and supporting the insurance of ships and cargo transported to and from Ukrainian seaports.

The action plan for the return of hostages and deported Ukrainians provides for the creation of an international monitoring group to collect information about them, access to their places of detention, additional sanctions against Russia and its officials for violations of international humanitarian law, and pressure on Russia to provide the UN and ICRC with unimpeded access to Ukrainian prisoners.

Concerning the paragraph on compliance with the UN Charter and restoration of Ukraine’s territorial integrity and world order, the working group proposes to focus on reforming the UN Security Council and limiting the veto, strengthening the role of the International Court of Justice by recognising the compulsory jurisdiction of the court in all disputes over violations of the UN Charter and creating an early warning system for actions that violate the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states.

During the third meeting of national security and foreign policy advisers held in Malta, a proposal was made to create an international coalition of countries to facilitate, among other things, the return of Ukrainian children deported or forcibly displaced by Russia from the Russian-occupied territories of Ukraine.

This initiative was voiced by the delegation of Canada during the meeting in Malta and was supported by many countries participating in the event.

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